Odometry is the ability to measure the distance one has traveled., or as Wikipedia puts it:

Odometry is the use of data from motion sensors to estimate change in position over time. It is used in robotics by some legged or wheeled robots to estimate their position relative to a starting location. This method is sensitive to errors due to the integration of velocity measurements over time to give position estimates. Rapid and accurate data collection, instrument calibration , and processing are required in most cases for odometry to be used effectively.

The word odometry is composed from the Greek words odos (meaning "route") and metron (meaning "measure").

Robots typically use a PIDController to perform odometry.

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Tags:  Hardware, Odometry